The first industrial revolution (1765) used water and steam to mechanize production, the second (1870) used electrical energy to create mass production and the third (1969) used electronics and information technology to automate production. Today, a fourth industrial revolution is underway building on the third, and the digital revolution that has occurred since the middle of the last century. A fourth revolution with exponential development, characterized by a fusion of technologies that blurs the lines between the physical, digital and biological spheres and that disrupts the industries of all floors. The breadth and depth of these changes signal the transformation of whole systems of research, production, management and governance.